In Ukraine, the areas under winter rape are more than one million hectares and this is not surprising considering the export potential of this culture and alternative to sunflower, especially in northern and western regions. Growing the rape improves the structure of rotation, saturating it’s by grain crops. At the same time, it is a relatively new culture for Ukraine, and so it’s growing in leads to a series of complications.
Let us remind that rape belongs to the cabbage family, whose main source of energy is oil in the seed. Spontaneous hybrid of the two types – the rape is a nowadays quite easily crossed with their cultural and wild relatives. The plants of cabbage family are enough widespread in phytocenoses of our area, so these biological characteristics raises the problem of staggered rape sowing by diseases and pests. Also, the problem is a biological contamination during seed farming of rape varieties, which creation has focused on productivity and reduction of glucosinolates and erucic acid – so called varieties of 00 types. Sometimes to this designation adds another zero, which means yellow seeds instead of black color. A careful analysis of modern breeding areas information shows that in addition to the basic features that all sorts should be characterized by to be competitive (winter hardiness, flexibility, adaptability, etc.), present there are several main areas – the creation of dwarf and semi-dwarf varieties. Considered that the introduction of this feature improves the wintering of the rape because of formation in autumn a rosette of leaves that covers the growth point that allow further care of sowing dispensing with special equipment. The second important trend - the creation of varieties resistant to systemic herbicides of non-selective action on the basis of glyphosate (eg Roundup, urahan forte) and imidazole (euro-lightning, euro lang). In the first case is a well-known to all GMOs – genetically modified organisms. Recently rapeseed resistant to Roundup, was spreaded in Ukraine despite the conditional constraints entered by the law. Farmers choose such rape and it is no wonder – from an agronomic point of view these varieties have advantages in controlling the weeds. As for other aspects of the use of GMOs – it is a question of controversial nature and will be discussed in the next article. I cannot refrain from one caveat: Roundup resistant rape is genetically modified and any analysis of the implementation of commercial products shows the presence of GMOs, so when planning varietal note of this feature. Another thing the rape that resistant to euro-lightning – a resistant to the herbicide caused by only one amino acid replacement (monomer protein), that acting on the gene responsible for the synthesis of a specific protein. These plants obtained by mutagenesis and by the law are not GMO that’s why their cultivation are not governed by special laws and may not cause problems in the implementation of commercial products. Another direction of rape breeding - a heterosis breeding because most varieties offered in the market are hybrids of the first generation. As you know, hybrids have an increased vitality, resistance to biotic and abiotic factors, and in this regard, higher productivity. Another thing is the economic feasibility of growing first generation of hybrids compared to varieties. Given that the price of hybrid rapeseed of importing companies is very high, the question often decided in favor of sorts. Basically, the breeding of rapeseed in Ukraine is far behind on that direction. Domestic first-generation hybrids, which represents by VNIS (All-Ukrainian Scientific Institute of Breeding) – is a solution that allows you to take advantage of heterosis (increased vitality and performance) for the best price.
Snihova koroleva. It is an early ripe hybrid (300-305 days). It characterized by high winter hardiness, extreme frost and drought resistance, developed branching, increased competitiveness regarding weeds, the best efficiency of intensive technologies.
Height 170 cm. Oil content of 46.4%, protein 19.7%, erucic acid 0.0-0.2%, glucosinolates 0.3%. Average yield of seeds for the years of testing is 38-40 cwt / ha.
Syntetik It is an early ripe hybrid (300-305 days). It characterized by high adaptability to growing conditions, perfectly drought resistance and resistance to cracking pods, and resistance to lodging . It is a high-productivity hybrid sensitive to the culture of agriculture.
Height 170 cm. Oil content of 46.4%, protein 19.7%, erucic acid 0.0-0.3%, glucosinolates 0.4%. Average yield of seeds for the years of testing is 32-38 cwt/ha.
Cleopatra. It is a medium ripe hybrid (305-310 days). It is resistant to the systemic herbicide based on glyphosate, the glyphosate salt application rate is 4 l/ha. It is an ecological plastic, drought-resistant, resistant to cracking and abscission with high winter hardiness, high-performance hybrid, and sensitive to the culture of agriculture.
Height 175 cm. Oil content of 48.4%, protein 19.7%, erucic acid 0.0-0.3%, glucosinolates 0.4%. Average yield of seeds for the years of testing is 35-40 cwt/ha.
Redstone. It is an early ripe hybrid (300-305 days). It is resistant to the systemic herbicide based on glyphosate, the glyphosate salt application rate is 4 l/ha. It is characteristic by high resistance to abscission and powerful germinating energy of seeds.
Height 168 cm. Oil content of 48.4%, protein 19.7%, erucic acid 0.0-0.5%, glucosinolates 0.4-0.5%. Average yield of seeds for the years of testing is 38-45 cwt/ha.
Blackstone. It is an early ripe hybrid (295-300 days). It is resistant to the systemic herbicide based on imidazole (euro-lightning), the application rate of herbicide of imidazole’s group is 1-1.2 l/ha. It characterized by high drought-resistant and resistance to blossom weevil damage.
Height 172 cm. Oil content of 46.4%, protein 19.7%, erucic acid 0.0-0.2%, glucosinolates 0.3%. Average yield of seeds for the years of testing is 40-46 cwt/ha.